A collection of marketing and marketing communications articles covering various marketing topics.

The Common Forms of Business Writing chart at the bottom of the Business Writing Academy home page outlines various business communication types and their purpose. Adding to that information, the chart below shows the most common audience type for each communication form.

Planning and Audience Analysis in Business Writing

Business writing, like all other fiction writing, needs the writer to fully understand their audience. Too often a business writer sits behind their computer and asks, “What do I want to write about?” This question places the writer at odds with the audience. The question best asked when beginning any business writing project is, “What will the reader (audience) need to know to understand my message and what type of behavior do I want the reader to exhibit after they read my message?” Thus, the first step in business writing is planning, based on the three-step writing process. Planning requires the author to understand their purpose for writing and requires them to develop an audience profile, especially for lengthy or complex business writing projects.

The Common Forms of Business Writing chart at the bottom of the Business Writing Academy home page outlines various business communication types and their purpose. Adding to that information, the chart below shows the most common audience type for each communication form.

Common Forms of Business Writing and Their Audience Type

Audience Profile Guidelines

Naturally, the purpose of your writing will dictate to what extent you will analyze your audience. As an example, if you are crafting a business email, you may already understand the receiver (audience) expects from the communication. With that example, you may decide to bypass an in-depth analysis of the audience. However, if you are drafting a report for an external audience or memo to a larger group of employees (internal audience) you will need to create an audience profile. The following six areas are guidelines for planning an audience profile.

  • Identify your primary audience and secondary audience (when required).
  • What are your audience size and their geographic locations?
  • Understand the audience’s level of understanding.
  • What are your audiences’ expectations and their preferences?
  • Anticipate audience reaction to your communication.

Detailed Explanation of Audience Profile Guidelines

Primary Audience

The primary audience for a business writer includes the main person or people who will read the writing, initially. This may include your boss, the CEO of the organization, or group of individuals within a department, a customer, or a segment of a target audience which may include hundreds or thousands of potential readers.

A note on Secondary Audience Members: Your message may end up with a secondary audience or reader. That is, the primary audience member way pass along your message, making the new recipient a secondary audience. It is important to not ignore the needs of the potential secondary audience, but keep your message focused on the key audience member, the primary audience. An example of a secondary audience may include an executive team. Imagine that the CEO of the company asked you to prepare a market analysis report on a new product. The CEO instructed you to send her the report directly but noted that they will also share your report with their executive team. The executive team becomes the secondary audience. Having an understanding about their needs is just as important as knowing the needs of the CEO, the primary audience member.

Audience Size and Geographic Location

The size of your audience could determine your communication approach. Audience sizes of 1,000 or even 10,000 need a different writing approach than one used for just a few audience members. Additionally, audiences located around the world also require a different method for communicating. Before you write your message, determine the size of your audience.

Audience Composition

Each person receiving your business message may interpret that message differently from the other audience receivers (see diagram below). When planning your business writing, seek to understand the audience’s cultural differences and similarities. Take into consideration their language preference, age, education, economic and social status, attitudes, experience, motivation, and beliefs. This information can help you understand their biases when writing your message.

Visit the Purdue University Writing Lab to learn more about writing for a global business audience.

Audience Analysis diagram

Audience Level of Understanding

Audiences have various levels of understanding content. If your intended audience shares your background, they will have a higher chance of understanding your message, Conversely, if your audience does not share your background, they may not understand your message. If your audience does not share a similar academic or professional background as you, the writer, consider briefly educating them on your topic in your message.

Audience expectations and preferences

When writing for internal audiences, determine their expectations for the communication. Typically, the C-Suite and executives prefer brief messages with fewer details. Additionally, understand your audiences’ preferences for message length and content. Do they expect a lot of details or just a summary of the main points? As a rule, messages or reports targeting higher levels within the organization require fewer details but do require just the main points.

Possible Audience Reaction

Audience reactions may affect the organization of your message. If you expect a favorable reaction to your message, you can minimize any supporting evidence and quickly get to your conclusion and recommendations. On the other hand, if you expect skepticism from your audience, you will need to supply lots of proof, gradually rolling the proof out in your writing.

Lesson Conclusion

The first step in business writing using the three-step writing process is to analyze the writing situation. This step includes defining your writing purpose and developing an audience profile as we discussed above. In the next lesson, we discuss the second part of the planning step in the writing process, gathering information about the needs of your audience and how to gather information about satisfying those needs.

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Writing Effective Business Mission Statements

What is a Company Mission Statement?

Organizations with a clear strategic focus have written mission and vision statements. A company mission statement communicates — most often in writing — the firm’s reason for existing; it defines the values and governing principles of your organization. The mission statement explains how the organization aims to serve its stakeholders, such as customers, employees, shareholders, and community.

Organizations that have clearly communicated mission and value statements that align with their strategy, goals, and objectives outperform companies that do not have them. Not all organizations have a mission statement. Some have informal mission statements, that is, they are not written for all to see. Even with a casual mission statement, these organizations still follow and behave in a manner consistent with their purpose providing a competitive edge over organizations without mission and value statements.

Four key points of a mission statement include:

    1. They describe the organization’s purpose for existence
  1. Focuses on the present
  2. Part of and critical to the strategic and marketing plan
  3. Corporate decisions must be in harmony with the mission statement

Why Should A Company Have A Mission Statement?

Companies that have a formal written mission statement achieve at minimum three main purposes:

  1. Inform stakeholders of the reason for the company’s existence.
  2. Dispute resolution for the company’s future direction.
  3. To serve as inspiration for employees and management within the company.

Informing Stakeholders

The written mission statement provides transparency to a firm’s stakeholders, customers, investors, employees, and business partners about their goals and objectives and the reason the company exists as well as what it is trying to achieve. If all stakeholders have an understanding of why a company exists and their specific goals, they can work together to help the organization meet their mission.

Dispute Resolution

Imagine a firm without a mission, all sorts of issues may arise that could lead the company in a direction that it did not want to venture toward. As an example, take a look at Google’s mission statement:

“Our mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.”

In 2012, Google purchased the mobile phone handset giant Motorola but later sold the company in 2014 to Lenovo. The acquisition did not necessarily fit their mission but served a strategic purpose, and they were expected to sell the company, which they did in 2014. Assuming that a manager within Google wanted to continue pursuing the handset market, Google could say that the products do not fit with our core mission and that they should focus on what’s close to their purpose, thus avoiding any potential dispute with internal teams, shareholders, and customers.

Employee Inspiration

Good corporate missions provide employees with a purpose to feel good about what they are doing for their organization as well as for the world. Most employees like to feel that they are part of something more significant, something that has a positive impact on the planet. A good mission statement provides this type of motivation and inspiration for employees and managers of the organization. As an example, Twitter’s mission statement is short, simple, and inspirational:

“To give everyone the power to create and share ideas and information instantly, without barriers.”

Characteristics That Make for a Good Mission Statement

Not all mission statements are reasonable statements. That is, they do not inspire, nor do they focus on the customer or some social value. Four characteristics that make for a good mission statement:

  1. Unique and emphasize the creation of a customer or social value.
  2. Stay focused on solving customer needs or problems.
  3. Employees, know, understand, and practice the mission statement.
  4. Inspiring, brief, and memorable.

Customer or Social Value and Unique

Effective missions are unique to the business and emphasize the creation of some customer or social value. Examples include improving the lives of people’s health or improving the quality of their lives. Mission statements should stay clear of communicating “being the best” at something or just making money. Focus on the positive impacts the business makes.

Solving Customer Needs or Problems

Poor mission statements often fail to address customer needs or problems. They become myopic and focus on their product or service resulting in product-focused rather than people focused missions. A compelling mission focuses on “selling” the problem they solve and not the product they sell. Organizations that fail to address or focus on customer needs and problems may find themselves becoming obsolete as new technologies and trends emerge in their industry.

Effective Missions are Lived and Practiced

A mission is only useful if it is lived and practiced by the company. Regardless of employee size, a good test in determining if the mission statement is meaningful is if regular employees can explain the company mission statement and use it to guide their daily work and decisions. A great way to incorporate the mission statement and get employees to learn it is to have it posted throughout the organization as well as provide employees with a mission statement card that they can carry around as a reminder of their overall mission and goals.

Inspiring, Brief, and Memorable

Good mission statements should be brief, inspiring, and memorable. Being succinct allows employees and managers to remember and use them all the time quickly. Some examples of inspiring, memorable, and brief mission statements include:


“Uber is evolving the way the world moves. By seamlessly connecting riders to drivers through our apps, we make cities more accessible opening up more possibilities for riders and more business for drivers.”


To build the Web’s most convenient, secure, cost-effective payment solution.

Whole Foods:

Our deepest purpose as an organization is helping support the health, well-being, and healing of both people – customers, Team Members, and business organizations in general – and the planet.


To enable economic growth through infrastructure and energy development, and to provide solutions that support communities and protect the planet.


Final thoughts: Without a clearly communicated mission statement a business does not have a goal or objective. Mission and vision statements are like the road maps for a journey, you may or may not reach your destination without them. Planning and preparing ensure that you have a clear path to your final destination. The mission statement is a firm’s roadmap.

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Essential Soft Skills for Marketing Managers Career Success

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As a marketing manager, you’re passionate about all that is marketing. You have a lot of time invested in developing your hard skills; your education, professional development courses, and certifications. Late nights in the office are a welcomed — solemn — relief to the pressured, deadline driven, chaotic day where you’re tethered to a cubical — cloaked with personal memorabilia and empty Starbucks cups with dried foam from yesterday’s discarded lattes —all within the four walls of an understaffed marketing department. Heck, you may just be a marketing department of one — like an army of one.

The occasional — sacrificial — weekend chains you to projects or marketing campaigns that must be completed by Monday morning because if you are not done you are kindly reminded — by your sardonic boss — about the stack of resumes from past applicants all too eager to slide right into your position. Yet, you thirst for more. More challenges. More responsibility. You want to grow as a professional marketer with the aspiration of becoming a marketing director in a larger organization, a VP of marketing, or, better yet, a member of the highly coveted C-Suite — the holy grail of marketing positions — a CMO: Chief Marketing Officer. You have moxie and lots of it!

The path to the promised land — so you think — is to acquire more hard skills. You enroll in online courses — digital marketing, marketing analytics, data-driven marketing, behavioral economics, and on and on and on! You’re obsessed with the pursuit of knowledge: it’s the basis of your existence. You ruminate the idea, “the more I know, the faster I will climb! I am — after all — a marketer of one!”

It is not uncommon for marketing managers to think that the more knowledge they stuff in their cranium — about everything marketing — the easier and quicker it is for them to ascend the corporate ladder or land that next — dream — marketing job.

Unfortunately, packing on more hard skills does not — necessarily — guarantee access to the holy grail of marketing or that next job. A marketer’s hard skills are just a drop in 5-gallon bucket when in it comes to career advancement; okay — I exaggerated — it’s more like a drop in a 1-gallon bucket, but you get the idea.

Sixteen-percent of employers, according to CareerBuilder.com, believe that possessing soft skills are more important than having hard skills when it comes to employees getting hired or advancing their careers. Seventy-seven-percent say soft skills are just as important as hard skills. That leaves just a few “morsels” — 7% of employers — believing that hard skills are the only requirement for career success. That’s 93% of employers that place some or all of their value on hiring employees who have strong soft skills. This does not mean you can forego your education or training and advance your career — or be hired — on your “touchy feely” side. What it does mean is that – in addition to your hard skills — soft skills are a requirement for that dream job or career advancement. So, what exactly are soft skills? Well, I’m glad you asked.

Soft skills — as defined by the Oxford Dictionary of English — are “personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people.” So, if hard skills are the technical ability and factual knowledge, soft skills are the characteristics that make up our “human” — or as I call them, the touchy-feely — side such as common sense, flexibility, positive attitude, interpersonal skills, etc. The soft skills are the core competencies that can make or break a career, not to mention, keep you from ever reaching the promised land: that special seat in the C-Suite executive lounge.

The National Soft Skills Association — interestingly, there exists such an association —identifies 10 top soft skills for career success: dependability, motivation, communication, commitment, creativity, problem-solving, flexibility, teamwork, leadership, and time management. With the help of colleagues in the marketing profession, I identify an additional 13 soft skills that are essential for marketing managers serious about their career growth. Drum roll please…and they are:

Growth Mindset

The ability and desire to focus attention on self-improvement over changing or blaming others. Marketing managers with a growth mindset can look at adverse situations and learn from them versus viewing the difficult situation as a failure that leads to their defeat. Marketers are often faced with adversity and difficulty on the job. Sometimes ridiculed by peers or superiors over failed campaigns. Seeking solutions rather than blame in these situations poises the marketing manager for a growth mindset.


It’s like common sense for the self. Marketers with self-awareness understand their driving forces: what angers, motivates, inspires, embarrasses, or frustrates them. Observing yourself objectively — during difficult situations — and understanding how your perceptions of yourself, others, and the situation drive your behavior and actions.

High Emotional Intelligence
As a marketing manager, you deal with multiple personalities — daily.  Your resolve is tested with every campaign you direct. You may deal with unruly sales professionals, superiors who try and play marketing manager — giving you misguided direction — and peers who like to throw in their unsolicited ideas. All of these personalities require a high degree of emotional intelligence. That is, they require you to think clearly and objectively without reacting in an adverse manner.  This means check your ego!


Marketing managers need to believe in themselves and their abilities to accomplish marketing objectives. Nothing kills the credibility of a marketing professional — or anyone else for that matter — than a lack of confidence. Companies spend a lot of money on marketing initiatives. If your superiors do not believe you have confidence in creating effective marketing initiatives that help navigate the organization in a forward and profitable direction. Guess what? You don’t have a job.


There are and will be plenty of disappointments in marketing. Even the most seasoned professionals encounter failure and disappointment on the job. But what sets those at the top apart from those who will never get there is resilience. You need to bounce back after a disappointing setback no matter how big or small. You need to stay focused on the mission — business objectives — and learn from your setback, continuing the journey forward.


Maintaining consistent energy and dedication in all that you do, learn, and achieve in your day-to-day operations and your career, despite setbacks, failures, and oppositions. Persistence is about getting up day after day and working toward the mission despite the obstacle and roadblocks that try to derail your efforts.

Marketers deal with people daily. It’s part of the job. You need to pay attention to the unspoken cues, developing cognitive or empathy for other people’s situation and perspective. You will receive a lot of input on projects you did not ask for. You need to set aside your thoughts about how you feel or what you will say next and allow room to understand the actions and intentions of others around you. If you fail to understand other people’s intentions, you may encounter difficulties with them and not even know why.

Presentation Skills/Public Speaking

Marketers are considered — by many organizations — as a spokesperson for the company, especially in organizations that lack a communications director. As the marketing manager, you need to effectively present your work to organizational stakeholders. Public speaking is part of this soft skill. Even though you may have a great stage presence and speak eloquently, you will need to also present information and ideas in a way that engages and motivates your audience.

Sales Skills

It’s no secret that in many organizations sales and marketing do not get along. However, as a marketing manager, you need to possess some sales skills for two reasons: to understand the process your sales team undergoes when working with customers and because as a marketing manager you need to sell your ideas, decisions, or actions to your team or organizational peers.


If you are not a marketing department of one, that is the only marketing professional within the organization, chances are you were working with a team. You may be the leader within your department and keeping your minions on task is key to your success. Additionally, you need to not only act as their supervisor, but their coach, providing them with constructive wisdom, guidance, and constant feedback that helps them perform their role effectively and leads them to individual success.

Interpersonal skills

Perhaps one of the most important soft skills of the entire list is this one — interpersonal skills. This skill is effective at building trust and healthy relationships with peers, vendors, and customers. It’s the glue that binds all other soft skills on this list.


Now, we come to the big question, can you learn these soft skills? Yes, you can, however, some of these soft skills can prove to be a challenge, depending on your personality type.  As an example, if you are an introvert, public speaking may not be the easiest to grasp right off the bat. I suggest that you list the soft skills you need help with most and begin to tackle those first. Once you have mastered a soft skill, move on to the next one, and so forth. I also recommend that you enlist a friend, colleague, or life coach as a mentor to help gauge and support your learning. I am living proof that with effort, time, and persistence — one of the essential soft skills — you too can achieve your soft skill Bodhisattva.

Developing the Optimal Value Proposition that Drives Market Success

For a business to achieve market success, it must create superior value for their customers, collaborators, and the organization. Peter Drucker, famed management theorist, stated that the purpose of business is to create a customer and that business enterprise has only two functions, marketing and innovation. Thus, the responsibility of creating value and winning customers falls on the shoulders of marketing.

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The Three-Step Writing Process in Business Communication

Effective business writing is essential to a company because it helps create efficient communication that leads to increased productivity, faster problem solving, stronger decision-making, and increased profits. It also helps boost the organization’s credibility.

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10 Newsletter Writing Tips For Effective Articles

Newsletters are still an effective way to communicate your company or brand with your customers. They allow you to position yourself as an expert in your industry as well as promote your products and services. Newsletters, if done correctly, can be a very powerful tool in your marketing communications tool box. This daily marketing tip discusses 10 newsletter writing tips for effective newsletters.

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Prioritizing Your Lead Generation Strategy – Part 3 of 3 in a Series

In part 1 of this 3 part series, I discussed Setting Lead Generation Metrics for your lead generation strategy. In part 2, I talked about Establishing Lead Generation Goals and using the S.M.A.R.T method to write goals.

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6 Ideas for Improving and Avoiding Negative Customer Reviews

To survive and thrive in today’s digital, customer-driven, market environment, you need to stay one step ahead of your customers. Customer’s, empowered with social media and consumer reviews sites, can help build your business or destroy your business with their online reviews.

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Who Needs An Advertising Agency?

While traveling on business, I struck up a conversation with a colleague of mine about today’s business climate and the overall health of his industry. After a brief discussion I asked, “Who handles your marketing communications?” He smiled wryly and said, “We do it ourselves.” He reached into his briefcase and with great pride handed me a sample of his work. He explained how wonderful computer programs are that offer companies an alternative to hiring agencies. His marketing literature was grotesque.

The rest of the trip, I pondered his literature and mindset. It occurred to me that one of the biggest threats facing the advertising industry comes from those who believe they can do it themselves. It begs the question, “Is the price of custom work still valuable to the average client?” For some the answer is, “No.” I wondered what might be driving this point of view.

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Six Ways Retailers Can Cut Through Holiday Marketing Noise and Ad Clutter

With Black Friday and Cyber Monday kicking off the “official” holiday shopping season this week, retailers and brands scramble to get their marketing messages broadcast across a variety of channels. Their hopes, to cut through the copious amounts of #holidaymarketing noise and clutter and be noticed by consumers.

There’s a reason retailers like Kmart and Walmart begin there holiday marketing in September. These mega retailers want their messages heard, ahead of the rest of the holiday marketing noise and ad clutter that will soon overwhelm consumers. While the exact number of messages consumers are exposed to is unknown, Adage.com puts it in the neighborhood of 250 to 5,000 daily messages. And that number is increasing as advertisers and marketers push out messages through every electronic orifice they can find. Unfortunately, Madison Avenues answer to the overwhelming amount of marketing messages is to add more noise and clutter through unique advertising channels.

Major retailers like Kmart, Best Buy, and Amazon.com have the marketing budgets to cut through the clutter and get a larger piece of the holiday spending pie. This leaves small, local, business who don’t have deep packets, scrambling to catch the crumbs. While holiday marketing, in itself, may not be enough for these local operations to cut through the large retailers clutter busting marketing budgets, there are some initiatives that can help them get a bigger piece of the holiday spending pie.

Some of the following ideas may take some time to get up to speed; others can be deployed fairly quickly, giving hope for those retailers who have been on Santa’s nice list to avoid receiving coal in their holiday profit stockings:

Six Holiday Marketing Noise and Ad Clutter Cutters

Be Authentic
Being authentic in today’s consumer driven digital market is paramount to your success. Representing yourself and your product/service in a genuine manner is good for business, and your bottom line. According to a 2014 study by Cohn & Wolfe on Authenticity, communicating honesty about a brands product or service outweighs the firm’s brand appeal, product utility, and popularity. Additionally, the study revealed that 63% of global consumers would buy from a brand they perceived as authentic.

Differentiate Yourself

Chances are that at some point you’ve heard the best way to stand out of the crowed, and avoid clutter, is to be different or differentiate yourself for other brands. This is a sure way to cut through clutter and stand out from the competition.

Take Whole Foods, the grocery store, for example. They go beyond just being a grocery store. Whole Foods is also a content generator and thought leader in the industry.

They understand their customers and share ideas and content that is not boastful. They also focus on local stores, taking away that big chain feeling, making each store feel inviting and customers welcomed.

Create Value

There’s nothing more mismatched about a brand, product, or offering that doesn’t offer it’s customers value. First, you need to know what your customers want, and offer them exactly that.

One of my marketing clients owns and operates a Chinese Restaurant; she literally mingles with guests and talks to them about the food they ordered; about what they like and dislike. She goes so far as to observe and check the trash bin for their discarded food items. From this qualitative data, my client is able to learn what her customers value and what they don’t.

Changing her menu based on her discovery helped her create new food product offerings and generate more share of wallet per customer.

Sell value first, features second. If you don’t know what your customers value, you won’t know what to feature.

Be Unpredictable

When Starbucks announced, this holiday season, it was forgoing the traditional Christmas themed cups and opting for a more, generic, red cup, it seemed to outrage some people initially. This sparked a frenzy on social media and even a lead an American evangelist and internet personality to post a video to Facebook in outrage over the red cups.

The “negative” publicity and unpredictable act brought more attention to Starbucks. There was actually a backlash against the backlash! And I don’t think the free publicity hurt the behemoth coffee retailer; they reported a 9% increase in U.S. sales and 18% gain in revenue for the 4th quarter this year. Not too shabby!

Use Remarketing Campaigns

A quick and easy way to cut through digital clutter and noise is to deploy a remarketing campaign. Remarketing is a way to get your ad in front of individuals who have visited your site, but did not make a purchase. In turn, when web surfer’s type in key words or visit other sites after visiting yours, they are presented with purpose driven display advertising about your product or service, reminding them about your business and all your offerings.

Remarketing is a good way to create meaningful digital advertising that is relevant to the potential customers needs versus irrelevant banner ads or link ads that provide no purpose at all. Plus, it’s quick and easy to deploy.

Direct Mail is not dead!

According to the CMO Council, 51% of consumers prefer receiving their marketing material from local shops via direct mail. According to a business.com article, direct mail has the highest rate of attracting new customers; 34%.

While marketers have shifted their attention toward more digital delivery channels, like email marketing and app. based marketing, direct mail is still the more personal approach, giving consumers a tangible piece to hold in their hands and feel.

Providing value to direct mail can increase its stickiness, or desire to be kept longer by the consumer. Direct mail is also cost effective and can be quickly deployed, in time for your holiday marketing.


By no means are the above ideas an exhaustive list of “what to do’s” to cut through the holiday marketing noise. However, they serve more as a primer to get your creative juices flowing. While this holiday season is upon us and you will need to act fast to deploy most of these ideas, it’s not a bad idea to start planning for next year, now.

If you have any additional thoughts on how to cut through this holidays marketing noise, please do share them in the comment section. I would like to learn more about your ideas and thoughts.